The short answer is no. The reasons are as follows:
Churches are just meeting places; the buildings are not in themselves ‘holy’ as Israel’s Tabernacle and Temple were (despite what church leaders would have us believe). In the New Testament the word translated ‘church’ is the Greek ‘ecclesia’ which always refers to the congregation and not the building. From this the question is more properly ‘should we, as members of a congregation in Christ or more properly as members of the ‘Body of Christ’ wear jewellery?’
1 Corinthians 12:27 Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.
1 Timothy 2:9 In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; 10 But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works.
Titus 2:11 For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 12 Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
1 Peter 3:3 Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel; 4 But let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.
The principle is that we should be modest in the way we dress rather than ostentatious. If we wear jewellery as an outward statement of our wealth then we don’t understand the principle.
However, we have no business making (or keeping) rules that are not laid down by the apostles. How we dress and adorn ourselves is a matter of individual conscience in the light of the admonitions of Paul and Peter. It is an everyday matter and not restricted to the occasions when we meet as a body in a particular building.
I hope you have found this helpful.
May God bless you,