Exodus 20:8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: 10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: 11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
The 10 commandments were given to the people of Israel when God made a covenant with them at Sinai.
This covenant is called the ‘Old’ Covenant.
It was given through Moses and ratified with the blood of animals.
This ‘Old Covenant’ including the 10 commandments, was fulfilled by Jesus Christ and taken out of the way.
Colossians 2:14 Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross;
Ephesians 2:15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;
Christ is the mediator of a ‘New’ Covenant, ratified with his own blood.
Hebrews 8:8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:
Hebrews 8:13 In that he saith, A new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.
Hebrews 12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
Those who believe the gospel and are baptised into Christ are not under the Law of Moses and are not commanded to observe the Sabbath.
Galatians 3:13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:
They are to observe those things only which are commanded by Jesus Christ.
John 15:14 Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you.
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
Although, being Jews. Christ and the apostles kept the Sabbath, they give no commandment for its observance by Christians. Nine moral laws of the ten commandments are endorsed by Christ and the apostles for observation by Christians, but keeping the Sabbath, which is a ceremonial law, is not.
Paul castigates the Galatians for wanting to observe the Law contrary to the gospel.
Galatians 4:9 But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage? 10 Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years. 11 I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.
The pressure put upon gentile Christians to be circumcised and keep the Law of Moses resulted in a conference at Jerusalem to clarify the issue.
Acts 15:23 And they wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia: 24 Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls, saying, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the law: to whom we gave no such commandment: 25 It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, 26 Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 27 We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things by mouth. 28 For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; 29 That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well.
The only observation commanded is that of sharing bread and wine in remembrance of Jesus’ sacrifice.
1 Corinthians 11:23 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: 24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. 25 After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. 26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come.
No day or time is specified; only that it is to be done often.
The early church met on the first day of the week (Sunday) to do this.
Acts 20:7… upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread…
This tradition has been continued.
Some have mistakenly called Sunday the ‘Sabbath’ which it clearly isn’t.
Jewish days begin at sundown. The Jewish Sabbath begins at sundown on Friday and finishes at sundown on Saturday.
Christians meet on Sunday which is the first day of the week and not the Sabbath.
I hope you find this helpful.