What is the veil exactly?
2 Corinthians 3:12 Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech: 13 And not as Moses, which put a vail over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished: 14 But their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the old testament; which vail is done away in Christ. 15 But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart. 16 Nevertheless when it shall turn to the Lord, the vail shall be taken away.
Israel as a nation did not recognise the Messiah prophesied in the scriptures and the rulers brought about his death.
Paul says the nation is blinded, not bring able to understand their own prophets.
He likens this to the time when Moses was given the Law, and his contact with the angel of God had made his face shine.
The people could not bear to look at Moses’ shining face and so he had to cover it with a veil.
Exodus 34: 29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses’ hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him. 30 And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him. 31 And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them. 32 And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai. 33 And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a vail on his face.
Thus, there was a veil between the people and the face of Moses.
Paul likens this to the peoples’ inability to understand what Moses wrote concerning the Messiah.
This blindness is temporary.
When Christ returns, he will save the remnant of Israel and they will recognise him as their Messiah.
Zechariah 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.
The metaphorical veil will be removed and they will finally understand their own scriptures and be reconciled to God.
The blindness will last until the fullness of the gentiles – those who will understand and obey the gospel - is brought in.
Romans 11:25 For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in. 26 And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:
In the first century AD the unbelieving Jews were cast out both of the land and the hope of the gospel.
When Christ returns the restoration of the nation to God’s favour will coincide with the resurrection of the dead.
Romans 11:15 For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
I hope you find this helpful.