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When is the month of Abib?

Where does it fit in the modern Hebrew calendar?

Abib was the first month of the ancient Hebrew Religious calendar. Abib means literally ‘ear of grain’. It was the month that Israel came out of Egypt.

Exodus 12:2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

Exodus 13:4 This day came ye out in the month Abib.

Deuteronomy 16:1 Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

Abib was renamed Nisan after the Babylonian Captivity.

Esther 3:7 In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus…

Because the Jewish year is lunar/solar, Nisan (Abib) begins on different Gregorian Calendar dates each year. Remember also that the Jewish day begins at sundown, not midnight.

Below is a comparison table for this year (2017).

Jewish Calendar Year 5777/8

Gregorian Calendar Year 2017/18

Month

1 Nisan (Abib)

Mar 28 to April 26

2 lyar (Zif)

April 27 to May 25

3 Sivan

May 26 to June 24

4 Tamuz

June 25 to July 23

5 Av

July 24 to August 22

6 Elul

August 23 to September 20

7 Tishri (Ethanim)

September 21 to October 20

8 Marcheshvan (Bul)

October 21 to November 18

9 Kislev

November 19 to December 18

10 Tevet

December 19 to January 17

11 Shevat

January 18 to February 15

12 Adar

February 16 to March 16

Source: Chabad.org

In the 4th century CE, the sage Hillel II foresaw the disbandment of the Sanhedrin, and understood that we would no longer be able to follow a Sanhedrin-based calendar. So Hillel and his rabbinical court established the perpetual calendar which is followed today. According to this calendar, every month of the year, except for three, has a set number of days:

Nissan—30

Iyar—29

Sivan—30

Tamuz—29

Menachem Av—30

Elul—29

Tishrei—30

Mar Cheshvan—29 or 30

Kislev—29 or 30

Tevet—29

Shevat—30

Adar—29 (in leap years, Adar I has 30 days)

Regarding the variable months of Kislev and Cheshvan, there are three options: 1) Both can be 29 days (the year is chaser), 2) both are 30 (the year is malei), or 3) Cheshvan is 29 and Kislev is 30 (the year is k’sidran, meaning these two months follow the alternating pattern of the rest of the months). Hillel also established the rules that are used to determine whether a year is chaser, malei, or k’sidran.

The rules of the perpetual calendar also ensure that the first day of Rosh Hashanah will never take place on Sunday, Wednesday or Friday.

When Hillel established the perpetual calendar, he sanctified every Rosh Chodesh until Moshiach will come and reestablish the Sanhedrin.

Go to the Hebrew date conversion website in order to determine when Nisan/Abib begins and ends in other years: click here to go to the website.

I hope you find this helpful.

God bless,
Glenn