The Bible doesn’t really give us a physical description of Israelites.
David is described as ‘ruddy’.
1 Samuel 16:12 And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.
1 Samuel 17:42 And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance.
Also the beloved in the Song of Solomon
Song of Solomon 5:10 My beloved is white and ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousand.
And those who took the nazarite vow
Lamentations 4:7 Her Nazarites were purer than snow, they were whiter than milk, they were more ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing was of sapphire:
Israelites were descendants of Shem and so belong to what is known as the Semitic group of nations.
Information on these can be found on Wikipedia.
The Israelites were scattered amongst all nations but maintained their identity because of their religion and are now back in the land of Israel as prophesied in Scripture.
I hope you find this helpful.