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What is Calvinism?

From the Encyclopedia Britanica:

Calvinism, the theology advanced by John Calvin, a Protestant reformer in the 16th century, and its development by his followers. The term also refers to doctrines and practices derived from the works of Calvin and his followers that are characteristic of the Reformed churches.

Calvin’s theology: At the age of 27, Calvin published ‘Institutes of the Christian Religion’, (see: in successive editions became a manual of Protestant theology. Calvin agreed with Martin Luther on justification by faith and the sole authority of Scripture. On the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, he took a position between the radical Swiss and the Lutheran view. Thus, he believed that the body of Christ was not present everywhere but that his spirit was universal and that there was a genuine communion with the risen Lord. Calvin likewise took a middle view on music and art. He favoured congregational singing of the Psalms, which became a characteristic practice of the Huguenots in France and the Presbyterians in Scotland and the New World. Calvin rejected the images of saints and the crucifix (that is, the image of the body of Christ upon the cross) but allowed a plain cross. These modifications do not, however, refute the generalization that Calvinism was largely opposed to art and music in the service of religion but not in the secular sphere.

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