Who are these "sons of God"?
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Romans 8:19 For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.
Using Strong’s Concordance
Creature <2937> κτισις ktisis; from 2936 (κτίζω ktizo - create); original formation (properly, the act of creation; by implication, the thing created, literally or figuratively):
Translated in the King James Version — ‘creature’ 11 times, ‘creation’ 6 times, ‘building’ 1 time, ‘ordinance’ 1 time.
Paul says that as many as are led by the spirit of God (meaning those who have believed the gospel, repented, been baptised into Christ and live by his commandments) are adopted as children of God.
Romans 8:14 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. 15 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. 16 The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:
The children of God, by suffering the persecution and deprivation of a life lived by the commandments of Christ, are heirs of the glory (the divine nature) that Christ has attained.
17 And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.
Luke 9:23 And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.
The things that we suffer for Christ’s sake are of little weight when compared with the glory that will be revealed in us when Christ returns.
18 For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.
Our mortal beings wait expectantly for the change from mortality to immortality that will come when Christ returns.
19 For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.
1 John 3:2 Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.
Philippians 3:20 For our conversation (citizenship) is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: 21 Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.
We recognise that the vanity of this life and the hope in Christ of a better life are both from the hand of God.
20 For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope,
Ecclesiastes 1:13 And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven: this sore travail hath God given to the sons of man to be exercised therewith. 14 I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity and vexation of spirit.
God has promised that he will change our bodies from corruptible to incorruptible when Christ returns. Our mortal bodies will be changed to immortal.
21 Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.
1 Corinthians 15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. 53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.
The people of God, in common with the whole of mankind suffer the consequences of mortality.
22 For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now.
Those believers in the first century who, in common with Paul, had Holy Spirit gifts; the powers of the world to come; where not excused the suffering of this present world. They likewise longed for the promised redemption.
23 And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.
Hebrews 6:5 And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers (mighty works) of the world to come,
It is the hope of the promised redemption (as yet unseen) which saves us.
24 For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?
If we really hope for the promised redemption, then we will endure the troubles of this present life patiently to the end.
25 But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it.
Matthew 10:22 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.
Matthew 24:13 But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.
I hope you have found this helpful.