Thanks for your question.
You are correct when you say that ‘rapture’ is not mentioned in the English Bible.
‘Rapture’ comes from the Latin Vulgate.
"Rapture", when used in eschatological terms, is an English word used in place of the Latin word ‘raptus’; taken from the Vulgate, which in turn is a translation of the Koine Greek word ‘harpazo’, which is found in the Greek New Testament manuscripts of 1 Thessalonians 4:17.
1 Thessalonians 4:17 "Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up
Using Strong’s Concordance:
Caught up <726> harpazo; from a derivative of 138 (choose, take).
It is translated in the AV as follows -catch up 4 times, take by force 3 times, catch away 2 times, pluck 2 times, catch 1 time, pull 1 time.
Meaning - to seize; carry off by force; claim for one’s self eagerly; to snatch out or away.
The word is used elsewhere as follows:
Matthew 11:12 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take <726> it by force <726>.
Matthew 13:19 When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away <726> that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way side.
John 6:15 When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take <726> him by force <726>, to make him a king, he departed again into a mountain himself alone.
John 10:12 But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: and the wolf catcheth <726> them, and scattereth the sheep.
John 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall <726> any man pluck <726> them out of my hand.
John 10:29 My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck <726> them out of my Father’s hand.
Acts 8:39 And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away <726> Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more: and he went on his way rejoicing.
Acts 23:10 And when there arose a great dissension, the chief captain, fearing lest Paul should have been pulled in pieces of them, commanded the soldiers to go down, and to take <726> him by force <726> from among them, and to bring him into the castle.
2 Corinthians 12:2 I knew a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;) such an one caught up <726> to the third heaven.
2 Corinthians 12:4 How that he was caught up <726> into paradise, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter.
Jude 1:23 And others save with fear, pulling <726> them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh.
Revelation 12:5 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up <726> unto God, and to his throne.
In context, from 1 Thessalonians 4 it refers to the physical taking away of those ‘in Christ’ (both the resurrected dead and those still alive) when he returns.
1 Thessalonians 4:15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep.
16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:
17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up
Paul has previously spoken of Christ’s return and gathering of those that are his.
2 Thessalonians 2:1 Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together unto him,
1 Corinthians 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.
23 But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming.
In Matthew 24, speaking of his return, Jesus says:
Matthew 24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.”
Although taken ‘to meet the Lord in the air’, the destination of those taken is not heaven because the promise given is that they will inherit the earth.
Psalms 37:9 For evildoers shall be cut off: but those that wait upon the LORD, they shall inherit the earth.
Psalms 37:11 But the meek shall inherit the earth; and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace.
Psalms 37:22 For such as be blessed of him shall inherit the earth; and they that be cursed of him shall be cut off.
Matthew 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
Jesus is to be given the throne of David and the kingdom of God is the restored kingdom of David on earth with its capital at Jerusalem.
Luke 1:32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
Those in Christ are to be made equal to the angels and in consequence will be invisible at will to the human eye.
Luke 20:36 Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.
But they remain upon the earth.
Matthew 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
1 Corinthians 6:2 Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters?
Jesus goes on to say in Matthew 24:
Matthew 24:36 But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.
I hope this helps,